# Second Semester Review

Waves, Sound, Light, Electricity, Special Relativity

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17. If the car (in #15) could move faster than the speed of sound, a ____ would be created.

 A. shock wave B. surface C. transverse D. standing wave

Shock Waves

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18. As a supersonic aircraft passes, a high-amplitude wave trails behind it as shown. Which diagram best represents the wave created by the fastest aircraft?

Shock Waves

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19. Sound travels by means of a ___ wave.

 A. transverse B. longitudinal C. surface D. token

Sound is a Longitudinal Wave

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20. The pitch of a sound wave detected by human ears is determined by the wave's ___ .

 A. speed B. amplitude C. frequency D. loudness

Pitch and Frequency

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21. The loudness of a sound wave detected by human ears is mostly determined by the wave's:

 A. speed. B. amplitude. C. frequency. D. velocity.

Intensity and the Decibel Scale

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22. Why can't sound waves travel through outer space (Why can't we hear the sun)?

1. Nothing vibrates in space.
2. Sound waves require a medium.
3. Sound waves do travel through space; we aren't sensitive to their frequencies.
4. Sound waves do travel through space; we choose not to listen to them.

Sound as a Mechanical Wave

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23. Resonance is created when:

1. an object is forced to vibrate at its natural frequency.
2. an object is forced to vibrate at any old frequency.
3. a grape is dried and then covered with milk chocolate.

Resonance

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24. The lowest frequency at which an open tube will resonate is known as the ___.

 A. 4th harmonic B. 3rd harmonic C. 2nd harmonic D. fundamental

Fundamental Frequency and Harmonics

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25. Two organ pipes of equal length are played at their lowest resonating frequencies. Pipe "A" is open at both ends while "B" is closed at one end and open at the other. Which of the following will occur?

1. The frequency of "A" will be twice that of "B".
2. The frequency of "B" will be twice that of "A ä".
3. The frequency of "B" will be three times that of "A".
4. Both pipes will sound the same frequency.

Open-End Air Columns

Closed-End Air Columns

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26. Two tuning forks are struck and an oscillating tone that alternates between loud and soft twice a second is heard. This phenomenon is known as ___.

 A. a shock wave B. a sonic boom C. a bow wave D. beats

Interference and Beats

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27. The phenomenon in # 26 is a result of ___.

 A. the Doppler effect B. interference C. resonance

Interference and Beats

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28. If one of the tuning forks in #26 has a frequency of 220 Hz, which of the following is a possible frequency of the other fork?

 A. 440 Hz B. 110 Hz C. 880 Hz D. 222 Hz

Interference and Beats

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29. Which of the following is the best approximation of the speed of light in a vacuum?

 A. 300,000 m/s B. 300,000 km/s C. 300 m/s D. 300 km/s

Optical Density and Light Speed

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30. When light enters into a piece of glass from air, its speed ___.

 A. increases B. decreases C. stays the same

Optical Density and Light Speed

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31. Which of the following is not a type of electromagnetic radiation?

 A. sound B. gamma C. infrared D. ultraviolet E. X-ray

Electromagnetic Spectrum

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32. What is a light year?

1. the time it takes for light to travel across the solar system.
2. the distance light travels in one year.
3. 365 days of low-fat food consumption.
4. a year in which there is very little homework assigned.

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