

Lesson 1: Vectors  Fundamentals and OperationsRelative Velocity and Riverboat Problems
Independence of Perp. Components of
Motion Lesson 2: Projectile MotionCharacteristics of a Projectile's Trajectory Describing Projectiles with Numbers: Horizontal and Vertical Velocity Horiz. Launched Projectiles  Problem Solving
NonHoriz. Launched Projectiles 
Problem Solving Lesson 3 : Forces in Two Dimensions

Lesson 2: Projectile MotionHorizontally Launched Projectile ProblemsOne of the powers of physics is its ability to use physics principles to make predictions about the final outcome of a moving object. Such predictions are made through the application of physical principles and mathematical formulas to a given set of initial conditions. In the case of projectiles, a student of physics can use information about the initial velocity and position of a projectile to predict such things as how much time the projectile is in the air and how far the projectile will go. The physical principles which must be applied are those discussed previously in Lesson 2. The mathematical formulas which are used are commonly referred to as kinematic equations. Combining the two allows one to make predictions concerning the motion of a projectiles. In a typical physics class, the predictive ability of the principles and formulas are most often demonstrated in word story problems known as projectile problems. There are two basic types of projectile problems which we will discuss in this course. While the general principles are the same for each type of problem, the approach will vary due to the fact the problems differ in terms of their initial conditions. The two types of problems are: Problem Type 1:A projectile is launched with an initial horizontal velocity from an elevated position and follows a parabolic path to the ground. Predictable unknowns include the initial speed of the projectile, the initial height of the projectile, the time of flight, and the horizontal distance of the projectile. Examples of this type of problem are
A projectile is launched at an angle to the horizontal and rises upwards to a peak while moving horizontally. Upon reaching the peak, the projectile falls with a motion which is symmetrical to its path upwards to the peak. Predictable unknowns include the time of flight, the horizontal range, and the height of the projectile when it is at its peak. Examples of this type of problem are
The second problem type will be the subject of the next part of Lesson 2. In this part of Lesson 2, we will focus on the first type of problem  sometimes referred to as horizontally launched projectile problems. Three common kinematic equations which will be used for both type of problems include the following:
Equations for the Horizontal Motion of a ProjectileThe above equations work well for motion in onedimension, but a projectile is usually moving in two dimensions  both horizontally and vertically. Since these two components of motion are independent of each other, two distinctly separate sets of equations are needed  one for the projectile's horizontal motion and one for its vertical motion. Thus, the three equations above are transformed into two sets of three equations. For the horizontal components of motion, the equations are Of these three equations, the top equation is the most commonly used. An application of projectile concepts to each of these equations would also lead one to conclude that any term with a_{x} in it would cancel out of the equation since a_{x} = 0 m/s/s.
Equations for the Vertical Motion of a ProjectileFor the vertical components of motion, the three equations are In each of the above equations, the vertical acceleration of a projectile is known to be 9.8 m/s/s (the acceleration of gravity). Furthermore, for the special case of the first type of problem (horizontally launched projectile problems), v_{iy} = 0 m/s. Thus, any term with v_{iy} in it will cancel out of the equation. The two sets of three equations above are the kinematic equations which will be used to solve projectile motion problems.
Solving Projectile ProblemsTo illustrate the usefulness of the above equations in making predictions about the motion of a projectile, consider the solution to the following problem.
The solution of this problem begins by equating the known or given values with the symbols of the kinematic equations  x, y, v_{ix}, v_{iy}, a_{x}, a_{y}, and t. Because horizontal and vertical information is used separately, it is a wise idea to organized the given information in two columns  one column for horizontal information and one column for vertical information. In this case, the following information is either given or implied in the problem statement:
As indicated in the table, the unknown quantity is the horizontal displacement (and the time of flight) of the pool ball. The solution of the problem now requires the selection of an appropriate strategy for using the kinematic equations and the known information to solve for the unknown quantities. It will almost always be the case that such a strategy demands that one of the vertical equations be used to determine the time of flight of the projectile and then one of the horizontal equations be used to find the other unknown quantities (or vice versa  first use the horizontal and then the vertical equation). An organized listing of known quantities (as in the table above) provides cues for the selection of the strategy. For example, the table above reveals that there are three quantities known about the vertical motion of the pool ball. Since each equation has four variables in it, knowledge of three of the variables allows one to calculate a fourth variable. Thus, it would be reasonable that a vertical equation be used with the vertical values to determine time and then the horizontal equations be used to determine the horizontal displacement (x). The first vertical equation (y = v_{iy}•t +0.5•a_{y}•t^{2}) will allow for the determination of the time. Once the appropriate equation has been selected, the physics problem becomes transformed into an algebra problem. By substitution of known values, the equation takes the form of


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